Why do people get fat?
For many years now, the epidemic of overweight has spread around the world. Today there are more fat children than 10 years ago, and the percentage of people who are overweight and obese is growing among all social classes. Each year, the number of patients with diabetes, high blood pressure and other similar diseases is increasing, and the main culprit is overweight.
Why is this happening?
They explained to us that you can’t consume a lot of calories – and today almost every drink has a dietary equivalent, but this helps little.
We were told that you can’t eat a lot of fats – today in all dairy products the fat content is reduced or they are completely fat-free; we cook in Teflon pans without adding fat, but this does not stop the obesity epidemic.
To understand why this happens, you need to know how exactly the systems of our body function. This will help us understand what needs to be eaten more, what is less, and what should be avoided altogether. The three main sources of energy in our diet are carbohydrates (sugars), proteins and fats . Each product that we consume contains them in one or another ratio.
In the 60s of the last century, the United States began an epidemic of obesity. They began to study it using the simplest methods and tools that were then available to scientists. The conclusions reached were also very simple. If people consumed a lot of fat, they were told that they need to consume less. If they consumed a lot of calories, they were offered to switch to foods that have fewer calories. Today we are listening to these conclusions.
But in recent years, scientists have come to the conclusion that, in fact, everything is not so simple and unambiguous.
Everyone knows that if he eats a good steak (protein), then the feeling of fullness remains for a long time. And if he eats only rice or potatoes (even if they have as many calories as in a steak), then after 1-2 hours he will again be hungry.
In other words, it’s not just about calories or fats. What is the problem then?
First, let’s understand how our body functions.
The source of available energy in our body is sugar in the cells and in the blood. The largest sugar consumer in our body is the brain. But we must remain within a certain framework of sugar levels, going beyond this framework (excess or deficiency) causes a deterioration in the functions of the brain and the whole organism. The regulation of sugar levels in the body occurs with the help of insulin produced by the pancreas. With the help of the liver, sugar turns into fat and accumulates in the fat cells of our body.
The source of less accessible energy in our body is fats. Our body is able to store only 2000 calories in the form of sugar and unlimited calories in the form of fat.
Imagine your mobile phone. Usually charging for an hour is enough for its many hours of work. This is how any economical machine should work: fast charging and slow discharge. So does our body. It takes only 2 minutes to eat a cake of 500 calories, and it takes almost 60 minutes to spend these 500 calories in the gym.
Having understood these basic principles, we will understand that the main problem of obesity in the world is the consumption of simple carbohydrates! These carbohydrates quickly turn into sugar in our body. Sugar floods the blood and causes the insulin system to lower blood sugar, turning its excess into fat.
This is where the concept of glycemic index appears . Its meaning is in the rate of decomposition of sugar. There are sugars that break down slowly (they are healthier), and those that break down quickly (unhealthy). The rapid breakdown of sugar causes a rapid pancreatic reaction and the release of insulin into the blood. As a result, the level of sugar in the blood decreases, and after 1-2 hours we feel as if we did not eat at all. Again we want sweets. Meanwhile, several more grams of fat accumulated in our body. And we find ourselves in an enchanted circle of consumption of simple carbohydrates: sugar turns into fat – you gain weight – you have feelings of hunger – and again all over again.And so several times a day. This is the recipe for developing obesity, diabetes, and high blood pressure.
What to do? First of all, try to consume more proteins, which are more saturated than carbohydrates, and almost do not contain sugar, and carbohydrates with a low glycemic index.
The opposite process occurs when there is a moderate drop in sugar level in our blood – our body releases a hormone whose task is to break down fat in our body’s fat cells and turn them into sugar and then into energy.
If you are on a diet, but at the same time consume foods with a high glycemic index of foods, it will be very difficult for you to lose weight. To do this, refer to the table of glycemic indices and choose, first of all, products with a low glycemic index.