How to choose a vaccine against coronavirus: Sputnik, Kovivac and EpiVac – how they differ, who are recommended

Mass vaccination in World has been going on for more than six months. There are three vaccines in circulation now, and one more will soon be available. We figure out how the drugs differ, together with Olga Malinovskaya, head of the medical department of the federal network of medical laboratories KDL.

“Sputnik V”

The Sputnik V vaccine, also known as Gam-Covid-Vak, It was developed at the Gamaleya Center. This is an adenovirus vaccine: it is based on a human adenovirus, with the help of which information about the S-protein of the coronavirus is delivered to the body. The introduction of the vaccine induces the synthesis of S-protein in the cells, which is the basis of the spines of the coronavirus. The immune system notices their appearance, and the formation of protective antibodies begins.

The effectiveness of “Sputnik” is confirmed by research and publications in the authoritative medical journal The Lancet. This journal has scientific weight and is recognized by the scientific community. The effectiveness of the drug is estimated at 92%. It has been proven that the introduction of the vaccine causes the formation of protective antibodies and the appearance of cellular immunity. In the near future, it is planned to start clinical trials on children and adolescents.


The peptide vaccine was developed at the Novosibirsk center “Vector”. The composition contains several short proteins – peptides. Their entry into the body causes an immune response, after which an immune response is formed in the form of antibodies.

Vaccine properties and efficacy studies are described in an article published in the journal Infection and Immunity in the spring of 2021. This journal is not well known in the scientific community and is not as authoritative as The Lancet, so some question the manufacturer’s data on 100% immunological efficacy of the drug. The available data in the article is not enough for independent scientists to conduct their own verification. An efficacy study that began a few months ago by vaccine manufacturers is still pending. If you read the groups vaccinated with “EpiVac”, it becomes clear that there are a lot of complaints about the effectiveness of the vaccine – a large number of people simply do not develop the required amount of antibodies.


The vaccine “KoviVac” was released into circulation relatively recently. It was developed by scientists from the Chumakov Center. It contains a killed coronavirus, ingestion of which causes the formation of antibodies against both the S-protein and other viral proteins. Clinical trials of the vaccine are pending. There are also no publications containing information on the effectiveness of the vaccine. If we turn to popular opinion (a group of testers and those already vaccinated), then there are no serious problems with KoviVac – the side effects are minimal, antibodies are formed.

“Sputnik Light”

All vaccines described above require two doses. Sputnik Light from the creators of the Sputnik V vaccine consists of one dose. Research on the drug will be completed by the end of 2021. According to preliminary estimates, the efficiency is about 80%.

Initially, it was assumed that the drug would not be used in Russia, but in June 2021 it became known that the use in our country is still planned. It is Sputnik Light that will be offered for revaccination and vaccination of foreigners. It is also well suited for young people – it is better tolerated, and antibodies in a young body are produced in large quantities even after one dose.

Which coronavirus vaccine is better

At the time of publication of the article, the most scientific data on the effectiveness of the vaccine “Sputnik V”. The drug is used not only in Russia, but also in other countries. In particular, in Argentina, several million people have already been vaccinated with it, and the drug, against the background of Chinese vaccines, proves to be more effective and easier to tolerate. “CoviVac” is a vaccine that has not yet received all the completeness of reporting and statistics, but has not caused any reason to doubt its effectiveness. It is built according to the old principles (i.e. not on messenger RNA), therefore it is chosen by many as a more proven one (like a vaccine). Researchers have a lot of questions about the EpiVacCorona vaccine, and the scientific community insists on additional checks. Its effectiveness is in great doubt.


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