Why can a sore throat?
The cause of sore throat can be a whole range of diseases, each of which has a specific clinical picture and causes. These diseases include:
- SARS is a group of diseases transmitted by airborne droplets. The causative agents of SARS are viruses that enter our body due to weakened immunity. Sore throat is usually accompanied by a number of other characteristic symptoms: runny nose, cough, general weakness;
- Angina, also known as tonsillitis, is an inflammation of the palatine tonsils. The pain is very intense, especially severe when swallowing. The patient’s temperature rises sharply to 38 ° C, the tonsils swell and become red. There may also be an increase in submandibular lymph nodes, general weakness;
- Adenoiditis is an inflammatory process in the pharyngeal tonsil. Nasal breathing worsens, mucous membranes swell, discomfort in the throat appears. This disease often becomes chronic;
- Pharyngitis is an inflammation of the throat. The patient complains of perspiration and dryness in the throat, there is pain when swallowing. Temperatures up to 37.5-38 ° C can be observed. Pharyngitis is often the result of a cold that has not been treated for a long time;
- Peritonsillar abscess: inflammation of the tissues that are adjacent to the tonsils (tonsils). It is usually a complication of streptococcal pharyngitis or tonsillitis. The pain in the throat becomes “shooting” and strong, the patient lies in a fever (up to 39 ° C), the tonsils increase on one side;
- Coronavirus is a new disease with a wide range of symptoms, one of which may be a sore throat. Usually, the disease is also accompanied by muscle pain, headache, fatigue and general weakness;
- Non-infectious cause of pain – mechanical injuries of the throat and larynx, glossopharyngeal neuralgia, muscle strain, tumor processes, thyroid disease, ingress of stomach contents into the esophageal cavity. Also, a sore throat can be felt with osteochondrosis of the cervical spine.
Which doctor treats a sore throat?
Earlier we found out that such a symptom can be included in the clinical picture of a variety of diseases. First of all, the patient should make an appointment with the family doctor – he will examine the throat, and also assess the general state of health, deciding whether additional studies are needed or the cause of discomfort is clear. Most often, family doctors refer patients with sore throat to otolaryngologists.
What medicines can the doctor recommend?
The choice of drugs directly depends on the disease, the symptom of which is a sore throat. We describe the range of drugs that a doctor can prescribe after the final diagnosis:
- Aerosols and sprays with antiseptic effect: used for bacterial lesions of the mucous membrane of the throat. Usually, doctors explain to patients that if 2-3 days after using the medicine, there is no relief, the drug needs to be changed – the causative agent of the infection has already formed resistance to it;
- A moisturizing spray will help gently relieve chronic pain without injuring the mucous membrane with aggressive agents;
- Throat tablets are divided into four main groups:
- Tablets with extracts of medicinal plants, relieve pain;
- Tablets with fragments of viruses and bacteria help to form local immunity;
- Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, eliminate inflammation;
- Tablets with enzymes, eliminate bacteria and viruses;
- Systemic antibiotics: given when a bacterial infection is the cause of the sore throat. This is a prescription drug that cannot be purchased at a pharmacy without a doctor’s prescription;
- Rinse aids:
- Salt solution: prevents the mucous membrane of the pharynx and tonsils from drying out, which prevents the formation of microcracks, which can then become inflamed;
- Medicinal herbs: for example, an infusion of chamomile is known for its anti-inflammatory and antiseptic effects;
- Antiseptic gargles: help to relieve inflammation in the throat.
Are folk remedies effective?
Some of the “grandmother’s recipes” for the treatment of sore throat have successfully migrated to modern evidence-based medicine. However, when using them, you should be careful: effective advice here often coexists with unproven ones. What folk wisdom offers us:
- Plentiful warm drink (water, tea, chicken broth): protects against dehydration at high temperatures, accelerates the elimination of toxins (the waste products of viruses and bacteria), helps to “flush” microorganisms from the oral mucosa so that they stop fixing and multiplying there. It is important to drink exactly warm, not hot liquids, so as not to burn the mucous membrane of the mouth;
- Honey: A remedy for the temporary relief of a sore throat. Some researchers point to the antimicrobial and wound-healing properties of honey, but they do not recommend using it for a full-fledged treatment;
- Warm compress: can only be used after consulting a doctor. So, with pharyngitis, a warm compress will not harm, and with paratonsillitis, any heating of the throat can only worsen the situation – up to the appearance of otitis media, mastoiditis or phlegmon;
- Air humidification: removes dryness in the throat. This is especially true during the heating season, when indoor air humidity drops catastrophically;
- Rest and sleep: the body, leading a tense struggle with the disease, needs a careful attitude towards itself. Patients are advised to give themselves time to rest, sleep and allow the immune system to recover. In the case of a sore throat, it is also recommended to give rest to the vocal cords – speak as little as possible, drink more fluids.
Is it possible to cure a throat at home and in conditions and why is self-medication dangerous?
Sore throat without fever and other symptoms can be treated with home remedies – warm tea or broth, gargling with salt. However, if the pain does not go away within two or three days, you need to make an appointment with your family doctor: he will study the symptoms and understand which list you will have to present at the nearest pharmacy.
You should definitely not prescribe treatment yourself. The reason is simple: most likely you will not guess what is wrong with you. A sore throat can be caused by a virus or bacteria – the two options suggest diametrically opposed methods of treatment.
The main danger of an ignored or “self-healed” sore throat is the transition of the disease to a chronic stage that will remain with you for life.