The best fat soluble and water soluble vitamins in food
The best fat soluble and water soluble vitamins in food
The fact that the human body needs carbohydrates, fats, proteins, water and mineral salts was known at the beginning of the 19th century . However, practice did not always confirm this theory. People who ate full-fledged food still got sick. And these diseases were obviously related to nutrition . Such examples can be seen while studying the life of travelers. For example, during the Vasco da Gama expedition to India, 100 out of 160 crew members died from scurvy . Later it was found that if the sailors ate a small amount of lemon juice, the disease could have been avoided.
In 1881, Nikolai Ivanovich Lunin (Russian scientist) decided to conduct an experiment on mice. He gave one natural milk as a meal, and the other fed an artificial mixture consisting of milk fat, salts that make up milk, purified casein (milk protein), milk sugar, and water. It would seem that this mixture contained a sufficient amount of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins for the full functioning of the body. But the mice fed to her first lost weight then stopped eating, and then completely died. Later, this experiment was repeated by other scientists. The results were the same. What is the secret? Nikolai Ivanovich Lunin decided that natural milk contains some other unknown substances necessary for life. Later, these substances began to be called “vitamins” (from lat. Vita- “life” and amin- “containing nitrogen”). Later it turned out that many vitamins do not contain an amino group. But this term is so firmly rooted in the scientific community that there was no point in changing it. What are vitamins?
Vitamins are a group of biologically active substances, different in chemical nature, that is simply obliged to constantly enter our body from the outside with food, and also these substances are part of enzymes in the body. Most of these substances (vitamins) are not synthesized in our body. But they affect development and growth, immunity, as well as metabolism. If any vitamin is not enough for our body from nutrition, then hypovitaminosis occurs. At the full absence of vitamin develops beriberi. In excess- hypervitaminosis. Currently, there are more than 20 vitamins. They are usually classified into water-soluble and fat-soluble.
The water-soluble classification includes vitamins of group B, C, PP, and others. For fat-soluble classification are – A, D, E, K. The following are the most basic and best vitamins for the body, as well as what they are required by the body and in some foods may contain.
Vitamin C is very much found in rose hips, sea buckthorn, blackcurrant, and sweet pepper. Vitamin C in the body promotes the formation of collagen, strengthens the immune system, regulates the metabolic mechanisms for carbohydrates and proteins in the body, and stimulates wound healing. The daily intake of vitamin C for an average person is 50 milligrams. With an increase in mental and physical stress, the dose should grow to 100-200 milligrams. With prolonged lack of this vitamin, scurvy develops, gums can bleed, teeth become loose and loose. If you do not compensate for the lack of vitamins, a person can perish.
Vitamin B1 – thiamine, a person’s need for the adequate functioning of the immune, endocrine, and nervous systems. The daily norm of this vitamin for an average person is 2 milligrams. And if a person lives in the edges with cold climates, the norm is necessary to increase in 1,5-2 times. A lot of this vitamin is found in legumes, as well as in products from wholemeal flour. With a lack of vitamin B1, the take-take disease can develop.
Vitamin B2 – riboflavin, provides normal vision, adequate growth and development, and ATP synthesis for children and adults. The daily norm of this vitamin for an average person is 1-2 milligrams. The best sources of vitamin B2 are dairy products, meat, eggs, liver, fish, buckwheat, bread. However, it should be borne in mind that during heat treatment, the vitamin content is halved. With a lack of riboflavin, the mucous membrane of the tongue, the corners of the mouth, lips become inflamed, wounds heal poorly, photophobia develops, eyes watery.
Vitamin PP is the nicotinic acid that the body needs for the normal intensity of energy metabolism. The best sources of the vitamin are: cereals, legumes, yeast, dried mushrooms, wholemeal bread, fish, meat, liver, kidneys, animal heart. With a lack of nicotinic acid, pellagra develops. With this disease, irritability, a decrease in motor activity, psychosis are observed, the tongue becomes inflamed, the secretion of gastric juice is disrupted. The face and exposed parts of the body are also symmetrically inflamed. Pellagra often develops in people with a uniform diet and frequent use of cereals, especially corn.
Vitamin A is retinol, which the body simply needs for adequate growth, skeleton formation, good vision. The day should eat 1 milligram. Vitamin is found in yellow and green vegetables, eggs, sour cream, oil, and liver. With a lack of vitamin A, night blindness can develop – when a person loses the ability to distinguish colors in the twilight. After that, an eyesore may appear on the sclera. If this disease is not treated, then blindness occurs. Lack of vitamin A may also contribute to the appearance of dermatitis.
Vitamin D is calciferol, which the body needs for adequate bone development. With the help of it, the body metabolizes calcium and phosphorus. The daily dose for children is 25 milligrams. Calciferol is able to be produced under the influence of sunlight. In large quantities, it is found in dairy products, fish liver, and eggs. With a lack of this vitamin in children, a disease such as rickets can develop, which is accompanied by convulsions, developmental delay, delayed ossification of the fontanelles of the skull.
Vitamin E – tocopherol, which is very much in vegetable oils, eggs, and green leaves of vegetables. The daily requirement is 10-12 milligrams. With a lack of vitamin E, muscle dystrophy and weakening of sexual function can develop.
Vitamin K – phylloquinone, a lot in cauliflower, zucchini, lettuce, beef liver. The daily requirement reaches 2 milligrams. This vitamin is involved in blood coagulation, therefore, when it is lacking, the risk of bleeding increases.
When using foods that contain fat-soluble vitamins , you should remember that they can be difficult to remove from the body. Therefore, you can not abuse them. Vitamins enter our body along with food, but they can be destroyed by cooking. Therefore, people often take vitamins in tablets, for many this is the best and best option. The pharmacological industry currently produces a huge number of multivitamin complexes containing a daily dose of vitamins necessary for a person. However, one must be able to distinguish good vitamins from bad ones. Mostthe best option is the use of non-synthetic, and natural multivitamin complexes from plants, fruits, vegetables, etc. They are more expensive, but they will not be able to harm the body, even with excessive consumption.
I advise you to read other articles on this topic to understand the big picture: ” THE ROLE OF VITAMINS AND MINERALS IN SPORT ” and ” VITAMIN-MINERAL ALPHABET “.